April 28th, 2015

Dua hak anak wajib ditunai

Rancangan Pesona D'Zahra minggu ini membicarakan tajuk amat dekat dengan kita semua yang berada dalam sesebuah institusi keluarga iaitu, hak anak. Perkongsian kali ini dibawakan Pengarah Pusat Media Institut Kefahaman Islam (IKIM), Dr Nik Roskiman Abdul Samad.

Berkenaan tajuk ini, ada sebuah kisah ketika Amirul Mukminin Saidina Umar al-Khattab menjadi khalifah yang mana suatu hari seorang lelaki datang berjumpa dengannya mengadu perihal anaknya yang didakwa derhaka kepadanya. Umar memanggil anak yang dikatakan derhaka itu. Beliau mengadili anak itu secara berhadapan dengan ayahnya.

Dalam majlis pengadilan itu, si anak meminta khalifah menyatakan hak anak terhadap ayahnya. Khalifah Umar menyatakan bahawa: "Antara hak anak terhadap ayahnya adalah ayah hendaklah mencari isteri yang baik untuk menjadi ibu kepada anaknya yang bakal lahir ke dunia. "Setelah anak itu lahir, hendaklah si ayah memberikan nama kepadanya dengan nama yang baik. Setelah anak itu besar, hendaklah diajar membaca al-Quran."

Mendengar demikian, si anak lantas berkata: "Wahai Amirul Mukminin! Itu semua tidak dilaksanakan oleh ayahku. Ibuku daripada orang Majusi yang menyembah api. Namaku nama yang tidak baik dan aku tidak diajar membaca al-Quran."

Khalifah Umar melihat ke arah lelaki yang membuat aduan sambil berkata kepadanya: "Apakah engkau datang ke sini untuk mengadu kelakuan anakmu derhaka kepadamu? Ternyata engkau derhaka kepadanya sebelum dia derhaka kepadamu. Engkau berbuat jahat kepadanya sebelum dia berbuat jahat kepadamu."

Anak rezeki daripada Allah

Anak adalah rezeki daripada Allah SWT. Pasangan yang dikurniakan zuriat mestilah bersyukur atas rezeki kurniaan Allah itu. Di antara bentuk rasa syukur adalah memperhatikan hak anak. Ibu bapa yang menunaikan hak anaknya akan melahirkan anak yang taat kepada orang tuanya dan terbentuklah watak anak salih yang menjadi tonggak pemimpin agama, bangsa dan negara.

Islam mengajar manusia dalam seluruh aspek kehidupan. Mengikut Islam, peranan ibu bapa amat besar.  Merekalah yang bertanggungjawab ke atas masa hadapan anak. Mereka bertanggungjawab memperkenalkan kepada anak nilai kasih sayang, erti kehidupan dan keperluan kepada pengorbanan dalam menunaikan tanggungjawab.

Dalam sebuah hadis disebut: "Setiap anak dilahirkan atas fitrah, maka kedua ibu bapanya yang menjadikannya Yahudi, atau Nasrani atau Majusi". Fitrah di sini bermaksud Islam. Oleh itu, setiap anak dilahirkan sebagai seorang Muslim, maka ibu bapanya yang bertanggungjawab memberikan ajaran agama yang sempurna supaya anak itu kekal di atas fitrah Islamnya dan memastikan anak itu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suasana persekitaran negatif dan boleh menjejaskan fitrah imannya.

Dalam sebuah hadis lain pula Rasulullah SAW bersabda bermaksud: "Sesungguhnya bagi jasad kamu ke atas kamu ada hak dan sesungguhnya bagi anak kamu ke atas kamu ada hak". (Riwayat Muslim). Disebutkan dalam perkongsian minggu ini, Dr Nik Roskiman menjelaskan, Islam mengajarkan hak anak yang harus dipenuhi oleh kedua orang tuanya.

Di antara hak anak dalam Islam adalah sebagai berikut:

Memilih ibu yang baik

Sebelum anak dilahirkan lagi, Islam menetapkan bahawa hak seorang anak ialah memiliki ibu yang baik. Hak ini jarang disedari oleh kita kerana menyangka bahawa hak anak itu bermula sejak hari kelahirannya, bahkan sebaliknya ia sebenarnya bermula sebelum mereka lahir lagi.

Justeru, seorang yang akan berkahwin harus mengambil perhatian dengan siapa dia akan melayari kehidupannya. Rasulullah SAW mengajarkan kepada umatnya yang ingin berkahwin untuk memilih wanita yang salihah dan beragama. Rasulullah SAW bersabda maksudnya: "Seorang wanita dinikahi dengan empat perkara, iaitu: kerana hartanya, kerana kedudukannya, kerana kecantikannya dan kerana agamanya. Pilihlah wanita yang beragama."

Utama agama dalam memilih pasangan

Begitu juga bagi seorang wanita, dalam memilih suami hendaklah mengutamakan yang beragama sehingga ada riwayat yang menyebut bahawa "apabila kamu didatangi lelaki yang kuat agama dan baik akhlaknya berhasrat meminang anakmu, maka terimalah pinangannya. Jika tidak, nescaya akan berleluasalah fitnah".

Berdoa ketika mendatangi isteri

Begitu juga hak kedua yang kita sering juga abaikan iaitu membaca doa ketika mendatangi isterinya, yang mana dalam Sahih Bukhari disebutkan mafhumnya, "Seandainya seseorang di antara kalian ketika mendatangi isterinya membaca, 'Bismillah allahumma jannibnasy-syaithan wa jannibisy-syaithan ma razaqtana' (Dengan nama Allah. Ya Allah, Jauhkanlah setan dari kami dan jauhkanlah setan dari apa yang Engkau rezkikan kepada kami).

Doa ini penting agar anak yang bakal terhasil itu daripada hubungan kita itu dari awal lagi terbebas daripada gangguan syaitan. Ibu bapa kadangkala alpa, gelojoh dan mengabaikan doa ini, dan tidak menganggap doa ini sebenarnya adalah hak anak yang perlu kita tunaikan agar anak terselamat daripada gangguan syaitan.

Kedua-dua hak ini sering kali diabaikan ibu bapa sedangkan ia juga termasuk dalam hak anak yang wajib kita tunaikan. Adapun hak lain seperti memberi nafkah, pendidikan dan lain-lain pada kebiasaannya ditunaikan baik oleh ibu bapa.

Marilah sama-sama kita memastikan dua hak yang sering diabaikan ini dapat ditunaikan agar kita tidak menyesal pada Hari Akhirat kelak kerana tuntutan daripada anak.
Berita  Harian Rencana 28 April 2015

Sumpah Asim

PADA tahun keempat selepas hijrah, Rasulullah SAW mengutus sekumpulan sahabat untuk mengintip aktiviti kaum musyrikin di sekitar Madinah. Baginda menunjuk Marthad bin Abi Marthad sebagai pengetua misi tersebut.

Turut serta dalam kumpulan ini ialah Asim bin Thabit al-Ansari. Beliau seorang tokoh sahabat Nabi yang membunuh ramai kaum musyrikin di perang Badar.

Apabila berada di satu kawasan bernama Had’ah, antara Usfan dan Mekah, suku Bani Lihyan menyedari kehadiran mereka. Kaum musyrikin ini lalu mengutus kurang lebih 100 orang pasukan untuk menjejaki mereka.

Takdir Allah menentukan mereka berjaya mengejar lalu mengepung para sahabat Nabi ini.

Merasa berada di atas angin, Bani Lihyan berkata: “Jika kalian menyerah, kami berjanji tidak akan menyakiti seorang pun daripada kalian.”

Mayatnya dipelihara Allah daripada kaum musyrikin

Kaum musyrikin ini penuh dengan sifat khianat. Janji mereka sangat sukar untuk dipercayai. Justeru, Asim bin Thabit dan Marthad berkata: “Demi Allah, kami tidak menerima janji kaum musyrikin selama-lamanya.”

Kedua-dua sahabat Nabi ini lalu memutuskan untuk bertempur hingga syahid.

Rakan kedua-duanya memutuskan untuk menyerah. Namun setelah mereka meletakkan senjata, kaum musyrikin memungkiri janji. Para sahabat ini dijual kepada ahli Mekah yang keluarganya terbunuh di perang Badar. Mereka lalu dibunuh untuk mengubati dendam mereka.

Sungguh tepat firasat Asim dan Marthad.

Tebuan

Sebahagian kaum musyrikin ini berniat untuk memenggal kepala Asim bin Thabit. Mereka hendak menjualnya kepada Sulafah binti Saad di Mekah.

Wanita musyrik ini pernah bernazar untuk meminum arak di atas kepala Asim. Itu kerana Asim telah membunuh kedua-dua anaknya semasa perang Badar.

Apabila mereka mendekati mayat Asim, tiba-tiba sekumpulan tebuan seperti awan berkeliling di sekitar mayat tersebut. Kaum musyrikin tidak berani mendekat.

Mereka lalu berkata: “Mari kita tunggu hingga petang hari. Pada saat itu, mungkin haiwan ini telah pergi.”

Setelah mereka pergi, Allah menurunkan hujan yang sangat deras. Air tersebut menyebabkan banjir yang menghanyutkan tubuh Asim. Allah menyelamatkan tubuh sahabat yang mulia ini.

Menurut Abu Nuaim dalam Hilyat al-Aulia, penjagaan Allah ini berkait rapat dengan sumpah Asim bin Thabit. Beliau pernah bersumpah untuk tidak menyentuh ataupun disentuh oleh musyrik. Agaknya, kebencian beliau kepada syirik yang membuat beliau bersumpah seperti itu.

Berkata Abu Nuaim: “Asim telah memenuhi janjinya kepada Allah semasa hidup. Justeru, Allah mencegah mereka daripada menyentuh mayatnya setelah beliau mati, sebagaimana beliau mencegah dirinya daripada menyentuh mereka ketika hidup.”

Antara pengajaran daripada kisah ini, siapa yang menjaga janjinya kepada Allah, maka Allah akan menjaga janji-Nya kepada orang itu. Sesungguhnya Allah tidak pernah memungkiri janji.

Sebagaimana firman Allah kepada Bani Israil yang bermaksud: Penuhilah perjanjian-Ku, Aku akan memenuhi perjanjianmu… (al-Baqarah: 40)

Perjanjian terbesar antara seorang hamba kepada Allah ialah mentauhidkan Allah, melaksanakan ibadah dan menjauhkan maksiat. Jika kita menjaga perjanjian ini dengan baik, Allah akan mengotakan janji-Nya untuk memberikan syurga dunia dan syurga akhirat.

Wallahua’lam.

Angin di mata Abdullah ibnu Amru

ANGIN adalah makhluk Allah SWT yang sangat hebat. Ada masa tiupan mesranya membawa rahmat dan ada masanya hembusan ganasnya memusnahkan alam. Dalam bicara al-Quran, perkataan “angin yang muncul dalam lafaz banyak (plural) – al-riyah membawa erti tiupan angin yang baik bersadur rahmat, manakala perkataan “angin yang muncul dalam lafaz tunggal (singular) – al-rih membawa maksud tiupan angin azab yang memusnahkan manusia.

Ayat ini menjadi contohnya, Allah berfirman yang bermaksud: Dan demi sesungguhnya, jika Kami hantarkan angin (menyerang tanaman) lalu mereka melihat tanaman itu menjadi kuning kering, nescaya mereka sesudah itu, terus kembali kufur (tidak mengenangkan nikmat-nikmat Allah serta berputus asa). (al-Rum: 51)


Angin pemusnah di daratan ini disebut dalam kisah pemusnahan kaum Ad. - Gambar hiasan

Saya langsung terpegun ketika meneliti tafsir ayat ini. Imam Ibnu Kathir mengutip sebuah athar (riwayat daripada sahabat) daripada Imam Ibnu Abi Hatim yang menceritakan bagaimana Abdullah ibnu Amru membahagikan angin yang disebut al-Quran kepada lapan jenis. Empat angin baik dan empat angin azab. (Tafsir Ibnu Kathir)

Empat angin rahmat itu adalah al-dhariyat, al-mursalat, al-mubasysyirat dan al-nasyirat. Semua angin ini disebut pada awal surah al-Dhariyat (51:1), surah al-Mursalat (77: 1 & 3) dan surah al-Rum (30:46).

Angin pemusnah

Angin azab juga berjumlah empat, dua daripadanya memusnahkan makhluk di darat dan dua lagi di lautan. Angin pemusnah di daratan adalah al-sarsar dan al-‘aqim. Manakala dua jenis angin pemusnah di daratan ini disebut dalam kisah pemusnahan kaum ‘Ad dalam surah al-Dhariyat (51:41) dan surah al-Haqqah (69:6).

Dua angin pemusnah di lautan pula al-qasif dan al-‘asif. Kedua-duanya disebut dalam surah al-Isra’ (17:69) dan surah Yunus (10:22).

Subhanallah! Hebat sungguh para sahabat yang bernafas dengan al-Quran kerana mampu melihat rahsia alam dengan memerhatikan isi kandungan al-Quran. Jika riwayat ini sahih, penemuan Abdullah ibnu Amru ini berlaku jauh sebelum ilmu kaji cuaca atau meteorologi ditemui manusia moden.

Inilah sebabnya Allah SWT mengarahkan kita memerhatikan isi kandungan al-Quran secara mendalam kerana padanya terdapat banyak rahsia alam yang sangat berguna untuk manusia. Ya Allah! Kayakan ilmuku dengan al-Quran.

Treating the elderly with respect

FOR those who study demography, the term “pyramid population” strikes a familiar chord. It is used to explain the age structure of a society.

The pyramid, which has a wide base and narrow top that vanishes into a point, is an indication that the age structure of a population is predominantly youthful and only a small proportion is elderly. How­ever, in today’s demographic trend, the term is hardly appropriate to describe a population structure.

According to the United Nations, the shape of the global population in 2015 looks more like a bell as there are more adults and an increasing growth of the older population in the world. Propelled by longevity and low fertility, the shape will again change by 2050. At that time, it will be referred to as a population barrel, and by then, older persons aged 60 and above will outnumber the population of children (0-14 years) for the first time in human history.

In short, the world population trend is moving towards an ageing society and Malaysia is not exclu­ded in the process. Data from 2012 shows that there were about 2.43 million senior citizens in the country. Based on the UN projection, the figure will increase to 8.85 million or 20% of the population in 2050.

But Malaysia will achieve an ageing country status earlier than 2050. By 2030 or before the 14th Malaysia Plan, it is forecast that 15% of our population will fall within the age bracket of 60 and above.

Islam recognises ageing as a normal stage of life. For those whose lives Allah prolongs, it is a reality that they must deal with.

In verse 67 of surah al-Ghafir, Allah declares:

“He it is Who created you from dust, then from a small life germ, then from a clot, then He brings you forth as a child, then that you may attain your maturity, then that you may be old – and of you there are some who are caused to die before – and that you may reach an appointed term, and that you may understand. (Quran 40:67)”

In Western countries, such as the United States and Europe, population ageing is deemed a threat to economic stability.

For example, the European Union’s Economic Policy Committee (2010) in its assessment of the threat warned: “The ageing of the population is becoming a growing challenge to the sustainability of public finance in the EU member states.”

Indeed, the warning has its merits. As the ratio between the number of retirees and workers increases, so will expenditure on public pensions and health care. As a result, governments will face tough times to maintain a sound balance between future expenditure and tax revenues.

In Malaysia, although the number of people reaching old age is gra­dually increasing from year to year, such a threat has yet to be apparent.

No doubt, when asked the greatest fear about getting older, most cited financial worries, which topped all lists.

With the escalating cost of living, the elderly would certainly find it hard to maintain a good quality life.

This was one of the reasons for the on-going heated discussions on EPF’s proposal to raise the age of full withdrawal of savings from 55 to 60 as it feels many members either lack enough money when they retire or they would have exhausted their savings soon after retirement.

Besides longevity risk, another problem commonly associated with ageing is declining health status. The Quran mentions that ageing also poses challenges to individuals.

Indeed, this is true because it is a multidimensional process of physical, psychological and social change. In surah Yasin, the Quran beautifully illustrates the effect of ageing when Allah says:

“If We grant long life to any, We cause him to be reversed in nature (i.e. We weaken him both mentally and physically), Will they not then understand? (Quran 36:68)”

As people get older, they are more prone to contract illnesses and injuries. Among health concerns for se­­­­­niors are Alzheimer’s disease, depression, osteoporosis, arthritis, heart disease, etc. Even though ageing is not a disease, it could negatively affect our wellbeing if we are not financially, physically and mentally prepared to deal with this life course process.

In order to ensure the elderly are accorded their rights with respect for the inherent dignity of human beings, the Quran and the sunnah have underlined many principles and precepts which aim to afford all possible physical, mental and emotional comfort to them by creating family obligations.

One of the verses that encapsulates the role of family in taking care and serving parents – especially when they attain old age – is:

“Thy Lord hath decreed that ye worship none but Him, and that ye be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in thy life, say not to them a word of contempt, nor repel them, but address them in terms of honour. And, out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility, and say: ‘My Lord! bestow on them thy Mercy even as they cherished me in childhood’ (Quran 17:23-24).”

In the verse, parents are virtual­ly placed immediately next to God. Such a hierarchy therefore puts filial piety as the second most important commitment of Muslims after submission and devotion to Allah.

Elsaman & Arafa (2012) explain that the placement of parents on such a high pedestal is aimed at providing a firm scriptural foundation of detailed socio-legal principles in order to secure for parents all possible material and emotional comfort that their children can afford to provide.

The verse clearly acknowledges that respect and kindness to parents is a religious duty and an obligation of a child. In the case of childless individuals, the task should be shouldered by their relatives or go­vernment-related agencies.

In dealing with the phenomenon of population ageing, all parties in­­clu­­ding policymakers and communities should not adopt the western perspective which looks upon the elderly as a burden to the economy or society. They must and should be treated with dignity and respect.

Muhammad Hisyam Mohamad is a Fellow at Ikim’s Centre for Economics and Social Studies. The views expressed here are entirely his own. The STAR Home News Columnist 28 April 2015

Where are the manners?

We should treat everyone with equal respect, regardless of their backgrounds.

I GET easily riled up when I see people failing to show good manners or indulge in abusive behaviour towards others.

We hear so many of these abuses taking place, usually aimed at people who work as manual labourers. The foreign workers and foreign labourers from countries like Indonesia, Myanmar, Bangladesh are common targets of the rude behaviour.

Just think about it. If we go to a shopping mall and we see a cleaner who looks like a foreign worker, do we treat him with the same respect that we give to everybody else? In fact, do we treat a white Caucasian foreigner equally as we would treat a non-white labourer?

I tend to take these cases quite personally because I was once a foreign labourer, too.

When I was in the United Kingdom, I worked as a cleaner for almost five years to pay for my studies. First, I was cleaning the wards and toilets at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital. I was sacked in April 1999 when the minimum wage was introduced by the then Labour government.

I then found a new job as a shelf stacker in a supermarket in Anfield, where I lived at that time. When I moved to Carlisle, near the England-Scotland border, I started my day at 5am as a cleaner at Kwiksave, a budget supermarket before heading for university lectures and continuing again as a shelf-stacker at the same place in the evening.

Similarly, when I was doing my Masters in London, it was manual labour at a factory that produced industrial cookers that helped pay my bills. Every day from 5am to 10am I would be at the factory to clean the toilets, canteen and offices.

Thinking back, I had no problems at all when I was working there. I was obviously a minority and I was doing menial jobs. But I did not face any mistreatment, either from my employers or from the authorities.

It angers me to hear stories about abuse of power by people in positions of authority. Recently, I was particularly upset when I heard a story about how a fellow member of the National Organising Committee (NOC) of the Asean Peoples’ Forum (APF) was mistreated by our authorities when he came to Kuala Lumpur to attend our meeting in January this year.

I didn’t even know Aung Naing Win before this incident. He is a Myanmar citizen, working as country coordinator for a Malaysian charity in Yangon. In January this year, an email was circulated saying that he was detained at the airport and eventually deported back.

At that time, I did not pay too much attention to the email. But last Friday, I happened to sit next to Naing Win over dinner and we started chatting. I was shocked when I heard his full story.

Naing Win arrived at KLIA in the early evening of Jan 21 to attend our regional steering committee meeting. When he arrived at the immigration counter, he was not allowed to pass through, but instead he was taken to the Immigration Office and then to a detention room within the airport.

He was not offered any food or water and he was shouted at when he tried to get information on why he was stopped.

It got worse. At around 3am, he became desperate for water. When he asked, instead of giving him water, one of the officers punched and slapped him repeatedly for several minutes. The violence continued despite Naing Win’s protest.

This took place in front of almost 200 other people who were being detained in that cramped room. They helped wipe the blood off his face when the beating ended.

Eventually, after spending two nights under detention, he was deported back to Yangon. He was allowed into Malaysia last week to attend the APF, but until today he does not know why he was prevented entry in January, or whether the violent officer who beat him up had to face any consequences.

When I heard the full story from Naing Win, I immediately called up a friend who is a Commissioner in the Enforcement Agency Integrity Commission (EAIC). He was kind enough to help get EAIC officers to deal with the case immediately.

There were small hiccups because it was a weekend, but at the end, I managed to arrange an appointment for Naing Win with two officers from the EAIC last Sunday. So a formal complaint has now been lodged.

This type of mistreatment really has to stop. At enforcement agency level, bodies like the EAIC play a very important role to curb abuses. This was a body set up by statute in 2009, and they started to function in 2011.

The main function of the EAIC is to receive complaints about enforcement agencies, including the likes of the police, local council officers, immigration, and customs, and then to investigate and decide accordingly.

There is a huge role that a body like the EAIC can play to improve things in Malaysia. I hope the Government provides the EAIC with sufficient money and manpower. There is no point setting up such a body but then refuse them the resources that they need to function effectively.

The public, too, needs to use the EAIC. If you encounter difficulties with any enforcement agency, you should not hesitate to get in touch with the EAIC. My own experience has been a pleasant one.

But of course it is more important to instil integrity and just plain good manners into our society generally. Surely it is common sense that we should treat everyone with equal respect regardless of their backgrounds.

> Wan Saiful Wan Jan is chief executive of the Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs (www.ideas.org.my). The views expressed here are entirely the writer’s own.  The STAR Home News Columnist Thinking liberally 28 April 2015