September 13th, 2016

Ketenangan 
Kota Suci Mekah, Hak isteri, anak tuntut nafkah

Hak isteri, anak tuntut nafkah


NAFKAH bermaksud keperluan asas manusia untuk hidup. Dalam hidup berkeluarga ia dikenali sebagai sara hidup kerana manusia memerlukannya bagi meneruskan kehidupan iaitu makanan, minuman, pakaian, tempat tinggal, pendidikan, kesihatan (ubat), keselamatan (perlindungan) dan kebajikan seperti bil utiliti.

Dalam Islam, tanggungjawab memberi nafkah terletak pada bahu lelaki, iaitu sama ada suami atau bapa. Suami mempunyai tanggungjawab menanggung nafkah isteri, manakala sebagai bapa pula menanggung nafkah anak.

Tanggungjawab ini diperjelaskan dalam ayat 34 Surah An-nisa yang bermaksud: “Kaum lelaki adalah pemimpin dan pengawal yang bertanggungjawab terhadap kaum perempuan, oleh kerana Allah SWT telah melebihkan orang-orang lelaki atas orang-orang perempuan, dan juga kerana orang-orang lelaki telah membelanjakan dan memberi nafkah sebahagian dari harta mereka”.

Sabda Rasulullah SAW dalam hadis yang diriwayatkan oleh Tirmizi: “Dan hak-hak isteri ke atas kamu (suami) hendaklah berbuat baik ke atas mereka (isteri-isteri) dan kewajipan ke atasmu memberi makan dan pakaian mereka menurut yang sesuai.”

Menurut Pensyarah Kanan Fakulti Undang-Undang Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), Roos Niza Mohd. Shariff, Seksyen 73 Enakmen Undang-Undang Keluarga Islam Selangor memperuntukkan kewajipan seorang bapa menanggung nafkah anak.

Katanya, seorang bapa bertanggungjawab menanggung nafkah anak-anaknya sehingga anak lelaki mencapai umur baligh atau 18 tahun dan anak perempuan sehingga berkahwin (menurut mazhab Syafie dan Maliki).

“Seorang anak lelaki berusia melebihi 18 tahun, belum berkahwin, sihat dan berupaya menyara diri sendiri, tidak menjadi tanggungan ke atas si bapa,” katanya.

Namun, Mahkamah Syariah boleh atas permohonan anak tersebut atau mana-mana orang lain untuk melanjutkan perintah nafkah kepada suatu tempoh sebagaimana difikirkan munasabah, termasuk bagi membolehkan anak itu melanjutkan pelajaran.

“Pada masa ini, kebanyakan anak-anak yang berumur 18 tahun dan ke atas masih di bangku sekolah atau di pusat pengajian tinggi, iaitu masih memerlukan biaya bagi menampung yuran pengajian dan sara hidup,” katanya pada siri wacana perkongsian ilmu di bawah program Pemerkasaan Wanita dan Pembinaan Keupayaan bertajuk Prosedur Tuntutan Nafkah Anak dan Pengiraannya anjuran Pusat Penyelidikian Koridor Utara (NCRC), UUM di Sintok, Kedah baru-baru ini.

Tambah Roos Niza, jika anak itu cacat atau kurang upaya dari segi akal atau jasmani, tidak mampu bergerak aktif seperti manusia normal lain, dan tidak mampu hidup berdikari, maka bapa masih bertanggungjawab mengeluarkan belanja untuk nafkah anak tersebut, walaupun umur melebihi 18 tahun.

Katanya, tanggungjawab lelaki untuk memberi nafkah kepada isteri dan anak-anak dalam Islam cukup jelas. Sebab itu, dalam apa keadaan sekali pun lelaki wajib memberi nafkah kepada anak dan isteri mereka. Jika gagal berbuat demikian boleh dibuat tuntutan nafkah oleh isteri, ibu kepada anak berkenaan, anak itu sendiri atau wakil mereka.

“Bila boleh membuat tuntutan? Ia secepat mungkin sebaik sahaja bapa sudah tidak memberi nafkah. Jika ada tunggakan, boleh dituntut bermula dari tarikh kegagalan bekas suami memberi nafkah sama ada selepas bercerai mahupun sebelum tempoh itu. Jika bercerai, tuntutan dibuat serentak dengan tuntutan perceraian. Elakkan bertangguh,” kata Roos Niza.

Kata Roos Niza, lelaki sepatutnya tahu tanggungjawab mereka ini tanpa memerlukan pihak isteri, bekas isteri atau anak-anak membuat tuntutan.

Namun katanya, jika lelaki berkenaan tidak menunaikan tanggungjawab mereka itu tindakan mahkamah boleh diambil.

“Jika di Kedah tuntutan nafkah anak dimohon berdasarkan Enakmen Undang-undang Keluarga Islam (Kedah Darul Aman) 2008 di Mahkamah Rendah Syariah,” katanya.

Oleh itu katanya, golongan wanita khususnya perlu tahu bahawa di bawah Enakmen Undang-undang Keluarga Islam adalah menjadi kewajipan seseorang lelaki menanggung nafkah anaknya, sama ada anak itu berada dalam jagaannya atau dalam jagaan seseorang lain, sama ada dengan mengadakan bagi mereka tempat tinggal, pakaian, makanan, perubatan dan pelajaran sebagaimana yang munasabah.

“Mahkamah boleh pada bila-bila masa memerintahkan seorang lelaki membayar nafkah untuk faedah mana-mana anaknya jika dia enggan atau cuai mengadakan peruntukan dengan munasabah bagi anaknya itu.

“Jika dia telah meninggalkan langsung isterinya dan anaknya itu dalam jagaan isterinya; dalam masa menanti keputusan sesuatu prosiding hal-ehwal suami isteri; apabila membuat atau selepas daripada membuat suatu perintah meletakkan anak itu dalam jagaan seseorang lain; atau apabila memberi kebenaran kepada lelaki itu untuk berpoligami di bawah seksyen 23,” jelasnya.

Katanya, hak wanita dalam mendapatkan nafkah cukup jelas, cuma mereka yang dianiaya oleh suami atau bekas suami perlu segera bertindak untuk menuntut hak itu dengan memfailkan tuntutan di mahkamah syariah.

Seksyen 73 (1) berbunyi –
 “Kecuali jika sesuatu perjanjian atau sesuatu perintah mahkamah memperuntukkan selainnya, maka menjadi kewajipan seseorang lelaki menanggung nafkah anaknya, sama ada anak itu berada dalam jagaannya atau dalam jagaan seseorang lain, sama ada dengan mengadakan bagi mereka tempat tinggal, pakaian, makanan, perubatan dan pelajaran sebagaimana yang munasabah memandang 
kepada kemampuan dan taraf 
kehidupannya atau dengan 
membayar kosnya.”


Ketenangan 
Kota Suci Mekah


BUKAN senang memperoleh peluang untuk menyentuh dan mengucup dinding Kaabah di Masjidilharam. Peluang keemasan itu digunakan sebaik mungkin bagi dijadikan kenangan terindah apabila pulang ke tanah air.

Umat Islam dari seluruh pelosok dunia yang berada di bumi bertuah Mekah pastinya akan mengambil kesempatan sebanyak mungkin untuk melakukan amal ibadat, sekali gus mendekatkan diri kepada Maha Pencipta . - AFP

Tidak lepas peluang

BEGITU tenang Tanah Suci Mekah. Gambar yang diambil dari udara jelas menyajikan pemandangan yang begitu mengagumkan dan pastinya menggamit kenangan buat jemaah haji yang pernah berkunjung ke kota kelahiran Rasulullah SAW ini.

Pemandangan dari udara itu turut menyaksikan Masjidilharam dan Menara Jam berdiri gah tengah kota Mekah, sekali gus membanggakan seluruh umat Islam. - AFP

Gigih laksana ibadah haji

MESKIPUN terpaksa berkerusi roda, dua jemaah haji yang uzur tersebut tetap bersemangat melaksanakan rukun haji yang ditetapkan dalam ibadah berkenaan. Ibadah haji yang merupakan Rukun Islam kelima dilaksanakan setiap tahun bagi mereka yang berkemampuan dan mendapat peluang melakukannya. - AFP

Cedera terkena peluruh getah

DUA petugas kesihatan di sebuah hospital di Srinagar, India, memeriksa tahap kecederaan yang menimpa seorang Muslim Kashmir selepas terkena peluru getah dilepaskan oleh pasukan keselamatan India semasa tunjuk perasaan baru-baru ini.

Protes tersebut dilakukan bagi menentang pemerintahan India di wilayah itu yang menyebabkan kematian seorang pemimpin pemberontak popular di daerah itu dalam pertempuran dengan pihak tentera. - AFP

Lessons from the Charter of Medina

ANCIENT MAGNA CARTA: It was a turning point in history in terms of protecting rights and liberties of society BLOOD feuds among Arab tribes, social and economic conflicts that could erupt at any moment among Jews, Christians and Arabs who have not embraced Islam yet:

14 centuries ago, the lands of Medina were far from peace until Prophet Muhammad graced this beautiful city with his presence and made the most significant agreement of history.

Back then, there were mostly pagan Arabs, Christians and Jews living in and around Medina. A feeling of resentment, anger and hostility was prevalent in their relations not only with other groups but also within their own.

An atmosphere of conflict and war was going on for over a century in the lands of Arabia.

A haj pilgrim praying on Mount Mercy, Mecca. There is perfect freedom of religion, belief and thought in the Quran. Reuters
When Prophet Muhammad graced Medina, the city was in a state of social dispute, inner conflict and political instability, much like today’s Middle East.

In such an environment, our Prophet brought the parties together, got their opinions and suggestions and drafted the Charter of Medina following their consent.

Through this charter, he bound the people of Medina’s cosmopolitan structure together for the purpose of establishing social unity and peace.

He brought about a ground of reconciliation among more than 100 groups, sometimes through letters and sometimes by talking to them in person.

British historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee describes the importance of the social union that our Prophet established in these words: “…Arabia that had never before obeyed one prince, suddenly exhibits a political unity and swears allegiance to the will of an absolute ruler. Out of the numerous tribes, big and small, of a hundred different kinds that were incessantly at feud with one another, Muhammad’s word created a nation”.

The Charter of Medina was the beginning of many things in world history. This charter signed in 622 AD is the founding constitution of the first Islamic state. It was the first pluralistic and democratic constitution in history; it brought a democratic and peaceful system which was unprecedented in the Arabian Peninsula to a community consisting of diverse races, religions and tribes.

People of Medina, comprising numerous rival tribes, came together for the first time and turned into a society where freedom of religion, pluralistic democracy, political union and peace ruled.

The Charter of Medina was a turning point in history in terms of introducing and protecting the rule of law and fundamental rights and freedoms. Moreover, these were not established by force, but by receiving the consent and assent of parties. When it comes to constitutions, the first thing that comes to many people’s mind is the Magna Carta — the Great Charter of Liberties.

However, under the leadership of our Prophet, the Charter of Medina was written 600 years before the Magna Carta. Although consisting of only 47 articles, it accomplished the objectives of modern and advanced democracies 1,400 years ago.

The Charter of Medina is predicated upon freedoms, not oppression; upon equality, not superiority; and upon right and law, not power. This charter guaranteed each individual in society the freedom of choosing the religion he desired and living and worshipping by his own belief without any pressure whatsoever.

It ensured the freedom of faith and conscience, which is one of the key elements of secularism. Article 25 of the charter, including the expression “The Jews of the B. ‘Auf are one community with the believers (the Jews have their religion and the Muslims have theirs)…”, underlines a comprehensive freedom.

Article 16 reads: “To the Jew who follows us belong help and equality. He shall not be wronged nor shall his enemies be aided.” After his time, the companions who maintained this attitude of our Prophet granted this right to Berbers, Buddhists, Brahmans and others like them; thus, disputes could be solved easily and a state of peace and justice was preserved.

The charter allowed each group the complete freedom of practising their own law but an offender would not be protected by any group.

For example, it is stated in Article 13 that the offender shall be punished with no regard to his social status and the victim shall be protected: “

The God-fearing believers shall be against the rebellious or him who seeks to spread injustice, or sin or animosity, or corruption between believers; the hand of every man shall be against him even if he be a son of one of them.”

Parties to this charter would help each other, support each other and live in peace and unity with all the other groups in Medina. The disputes between parties would be settled by the arbitration of our Prophet, accepted by all groups as the fairest person.

The Charter of Medina guaranteed the legal rights and freedoms of all individuals regardless if they were Muslim, Jew, Christian or pagan.

Despite the harsh oppression and cruelty of the pagans of Mecca, our Prophet maintained a merciful and protective attitude towards them and even set this as a provision in the constitution, as the purpose of Islam is to bring peace and love to the whole world. With this constitution,

Prophet Muhammad applied the Quran’s attitude of love, respect, compassion, peace and freedom for all mankind regardless of their beliefs.

Some people think that Islam and certain values such as democracy, secularism and freedom of thought cannot co-exist.

Those who have led to this wrong prejudice in the Western world are fanatics that have emerged in the name of Islam but who are, in fact, acting in line with superstitions, fabricated hadiths and non-Quranic beliefs.

It is this bigoted mindset which is completely incompatible with the Quran, which does not allow any living space for any idea other than its own radical ideas, which regards women as second class and generally makes life unlivable.

The cause of suffering, terror and conflict today in the Middle East and in some other Islamic countries is the radical ideology of bigotry. There is no compulsion in Islam.

There is perfect freedom of religion, belief and thought in the Quran. The verses “There is no compulsion where the religion is concerned” (Quran, 2:256); “You have your religion and I have my religion” (Quran, 109:6); and “Say: ‘It is the truth from your Lord; so let whoever wishes have faith and whoever wishes disbelieve’” (Quran, 18:29) of the Quran are the summary of secularism.

With the Charter of Medina prepared by Prophet Muhammad, a model of pluralistic society was realised on the basis of religious, cultural and legal autonomy and a century-old conflicts among groups of different beliefs and cultures came to an end.

If considered from today’s perspective, the Charter of Medina would be a perfect starting point guiding Muslims to a peaceful, fair, understanding, affectionate and benevolent social model both in the Western world and in the Middle East, suffering from a tragedy continuing for more than a century, and the Islamic world in general.